STOP Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in the world by JSTOR. Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial purposes. Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early- journal-content . JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. UNDER THE YOKE BY HENRY W. NEVINSON If ever there was a nation which ought to have a fellow- feeling with subject races it is the inhabitants of Eng- land. I have heard of no land so frequently subjected, unless, perhaps, it were northern India. Eound- headed builders of round tombs were subjected by long - headed builders of long tombs; and long-headed builders of tombs were subjected by builders of Stonehenge ; for five hundred years the builders of Stonehenge were a subject race to Borne; Roman-British civilization was subjected to barbar- ous Jutes and heavy Saxons; Britons, Jutes and Saxons became the subjects of Danes; Britons, Jutes, Saxons and Danes lay as one subject race at the feet of the Normans. As far as subjection goes, English history is like a house that Jack built : " This is the Norman nobly born, Who conquered the Dane that drank from a horn, Who harried the Saxon's kine and corn, Who banished the Roman all forlorn, Who tidied the Celt so tattered and torn," and so on, back to the prehistoric Jack who built the round house of the dead. Our later subjections to the French, the Scots, the Dutch and the Germans, who have in turn ruled our courts and fattened on their favors, have not been so violent or so com- plete; but for some centuries they depressed our people with a sense of humiliation, and they have left their mark upon our national character and language. Indeed, our language is a synopsis of conquests, a stratification of sub- jections. We can hardly speak a sentence without recording a certain number of the subject races from which we have sprung. The only one ever left out is the British, and that survives in the names of our most beautiful rivers and UNDER THE YOKE 249 mountains. It is true that all of our conquerors have come to stay — all with the one exception of Rome. "We have never formed part of a distant and foreign empire except the Roman. Even our Norman invaders soon regarded our country as the center of their power and not as a province. Nevertheless, nearly every branch of our interwoven an- cestry has at one time or other suffered as a subject race, and perhaps from that source we derive the quality that Mark Twain perceived when at the Jubilee Procession of our Empire he observed, " Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth." Perhaps also for this reason we raise the Recessional prayer for a humble and a contrite heart, lest we forget our history — lest we forget. "We pray in contrite humility to remember, but we have forgotten. In speaking lately of Finland's loss of liberty, Madame Malmberg, the Finnish patriot, said that in old days, when their liberties seemed secure, the Finns felt no sympathy with other nationalities — the Poles, the Georgians, or the Russians themselves — struggling to be free. They did not know what it was to be a subject race. They could not realize the degrading loss of nationality. They were soon to learn, and they know how. We have not learned. We have forgotten our lesson. That is why we remain so indifferent to the cry of freedom and to the suppression of nationality all over the world. Let us for a moment im- agine that something terrible has happened ; that our states- men have at last got their addition sums in Dreadnoughts right, and have learned by hard experience that we have less than two to one and therefore are wiped from the seas ; or that our august Russian ally, using Finland as a base, has established an immense naval port in the Norwegian fiords and thence poured the Tartar and Cossack hordes over our islands. Let us imagine anything that might leave some dominant Power supreme in London and reduce us for the sixth or seventh time to the position of a subject race. Where should we feel the difference most? Let us suppose that the conqueror retained our country as part of his em- pire, just as we have retained Ireland, India, Egypt and the South- African Dutch republics; or as Russia has re- tained Poland, Georgia, Finland, the Baltic Provinces and Siberia, and is on the point of retaining Persia ; or as Ger- many has retained Poland and Alsace - Lorraine ; or as France has retained Tonquin and an enormous empire in 250 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW northwest Africa and is on the point of retaining Morocco ; or as Austria has retained Bohemia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia, and many other nationalities. Let us only judge of what might happen to us by observing what is actually happening in other instances at this moment. The dominant Power — let us call it Germany for short and merely as an illustration — would at once appoint its own subjects to all the high positions of State. England would be divided into four sections under German Governor-Gen- erals and there would be German Governor - Generals in Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Germans would be appointed as District Commissioners to collect revenue, try cases, and control the police. A Council of Germans, with a proportion of nominated British lords and squires, would legislate for each province, and perhaps, after a century or so, as a great concession a small franchise might be granted, with special advantages to Presbyterians, the German Governor-General retaining the right to reject any candidate and to veto all legislation. A German Viceroy, surrounded by a Council in which the majority was always German, and the chief offices of Chancellor of the Exchequer, Commander-in-Chief of the army, and so forth, were always filled by Germans, would hold a Court at Windsor and Buckingham Palace. We should have to undertake the support of Lutheran Churches for the spiritual consolation of our rulers. We should be given a German Lord Mayor. German would be the official language of the country, though interpreters might be allow- ed in the law courts. Public examinations would be conducted in German, and all candidates for the highest civilian posts would have to go to Germany to be educated. The leading newspapers would be published in German and a strict censorship established over the Times and other rebellious organs. The smallest criticism of the German Government would be prosecuted as sedition. English papers would be confiscated, English editors heavily fined or imprisoned, English speakers deported to the Orkneys without trial or cause shown. Writers on liberty, such as Milton, Words- worth, Shelley, Burke, Mill and Lord Morley, would be forbidden. The works of even German authors like Schiller, Heine and Karl Marx would be prohibited, and a pamphlet written by a German and founded on official evidence to prove thenn justice and tortures to which the English people UNDER THE YOKE 251 were exposed under the German system of police would be destroyed. On our railways English gentlemen and ladies would be expected to travel second or third class, or, if they traveled first, they would be exposed to Teutonic insolence and would probably be turned out by some German official. Public buildings would be erected in the German style. Eng- lish manufacturers and all industries would be hampered by an elaborate system of excise which would flood our markets with German goods. Such art as England possesses would disappear. Arms would be prohibited. The common people, especially in Scotland and the northwest provinces, would be encouraged to recruit in the native army under the com- mand of German officers, and the Scottish regiments would maintain their proud tradition ; but no British officer would be allowed to rise above the rank of sergeant-major. The Territorials would be disbanded. The Boy Scouts would be declared seditious associations. If a party of German officers went fox- shooting in Leicestershire, and the villagers resisted the slaughter of the sacred animal, some of the leading villagers would be hanged and others flogged during the execution. Our National Anthem would begin: " God save our German king ! Long live our foreign king ! ' ' The singing of " Eule, Britannia," would be regarded as a seditious act. I am not saying that so complete a subjection is possible. We believe that in a powerful, wealthy, proud and highly civilized country like ours it would not be possible. All I say is that, if we assume it possible, something like that would be our condition if we were treated by the dominant Power as we ourselves are treating other races which were power- ful, wealthy, proud and, in their own estimation, highly civilized when we invaded or otherwise obtained the mastery over them. I am only trying to suggest to ourselves the mood and feelings of a subject race — the humble and con- trite heart for which we pray as God's ancient sacrifice. If we wish to be done by as we do, these are some incidents in the government we should lie under when we were reduced beneath a dominant power, as India and Egypt are re- duced beneath ourselves. I have not taken the worst in- stances of the treatment of subject races I could find. I have not spoken of the old methods of partial or complete ex- termination whether in Roman Europe or Spanish and Brit- ish Americas; nor have I spoken of the partial or complete 252 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW enslavement of subject races in the Dutch, British, Portu- guese, Belgian and French regions of Africa. I have not dwelt upon the hideous scenes of massacre, torture, devasta- tion and lust which I have myself witnessed in Macedonia under the Turks and in the Caucasus, the Baltic Provinces and Poland under Russia when subject races attempted some poor effort to regain their freedom. I have not even men- tioned the old ruin and slaughter of Ireland or the latest murder of a nation in Finland. I have taken my comparison from the government of subject races at what is probably its very best; at all events, at what the English people re- gard as its best — the administration of India and Egypt — and we have no reason to suppose that Germany would ad- minister England better if we were a subject race under the German Empire. If Germany did as well she would have something to say for herself. She might lay stress on the great material ad- vantages she would bestow on this country. Such industries as she left us she would reorganize on the Kartel system. She would much improve our railways by unifying them as a State property, so that even our southeastern trains might arrive in time. She would overhaul our education, ending tbe long wrangle between religious sects by abolishing all distinctions. She would erect an entirely new standard of knowledge, especially in natural science, chemistry and book- keeping. She would institute special classes for prospective chauffeurs and commercial travelers. She would abolish Eton, Harrow and the other public schools, together with the college buildings of Oxford and Cambridge, converting them all into barracks, while the students would find their own lodgings in the towns and stand on far greater equality in regard to wealth. German is not a very beautiful lan- guage, but it has a literature, and we should have the advan- tage of speaking German and learning something of German literature and history. Great improvements would be intro- duced in sanitation, town-planning and municipal govern ment, and we should all learn to eat black bread, which is much more wholesome than white. In a large part of the country peasant proprietors would be established, and the peasants as a whole would be far better protected against the exactions and petty tyranny of the landlords than they are at present. Under the pressure UNDER THE YOKE 253 of external rule, all the troublesome divisions and small animosities between English, Scotch, Irish and "Welsh would tend to disappear, though the Germans might show special favor to the Scotch and Presbyterians generally on the prin- ciple of " Divide and Rule," just as we show special favor to the Mohammedans of India. "We should, of course, be compelled to contribute to the defense of the Empire and should pay the expenses of the large German garrisons quartered in our midst and of the German cruisers that patrolled our shores. But as we should have no fleet of our own to maintain, and in case of foreign aggression could draw upon the vast resources of the German Empire, our taxation for defense would probably be considerably reduced from its present figure of about seventy millions a year. That, I think, is an impartial statement of the reasons which some dominant Power, such as Germany, might fairly advance in defense of her rule if we were included in a for- eign Empire. At all events, they very closely resemble the reasons we put forward to glorify the services of our Em- pire .to India and Egypt. I suppose also that the Fabians among ourselves would support the foreign domination, just as their leaders supported the overthrow of the Boer repub- lics, on the ground that larger states bring the Fabian — the very Fabian — revolution nearer. And, perhaps, the Social Democrats would support it by an extension of their theory that the social millennium can best arrive from a condition of general enslavement. The Cosmopolitans would support it as tending to obliterate the old-fashioned distinc- tions of nationality that impede the unity of mankind, while a'host of German pedants and poets would pour out libraries in praise of the Anglo-Teutonic races united at last in irre- sistible brotherhood and standing ready to take up the Teu- ton 's burden imposed upon the Blood by the special or- dinance of the Lord. The parallel is false, you may say; the conditions are not the same; in spite of all material and educational advan- tages, we in England would never endure such subjection; we should Jive in a state of perpetual rebellion; our troops would mutiny; much as we all detest assassination, the lives of our foreign Governors would hardly be secure. I agree. I hope there is implanted in all of us such a hatred of subjection that we should conspire to die rather than endure it. I only wish to suggest to you the mood of a 254 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW subject race, tinder the best actual conditions of subjec- tion — to suggest that other peoples may possibly feel an equal hatred toward foreign domination — and to supply in ourselves something of that imaginative sympathy which Madame Malmberg tells us the Finns only learned after their own freedom had been overthrown. We feel at once that something far more valuable than all the material, or even moral, advantages which a dominant Power might give us would be involved in the overthrow of our independent nationality. That something is nationality itself. But what is nationality? As Dr. Johnson said of the camel, it is difficult to define, but we know it when we see it. Or, as St. Augustine said of Time, ' ' I know what it is when you don't ask me." Nationality implies a stock or race, an inborn temperament, with certain instincts and capaci- ties. It is the slow production of forgotten movements and obscure endeavors that cannot be repeated or restored. It is sanctified by the long struggles of growth and by the affection that has gathered round its history. If na- tionality has kindled and maintained the light of freedom, it is illuminated by a glory that transforms mountain pov- erty into splendor. If it has endured tyranny, its people are welded together by a common suffering and a com- mon indignation. At the lowest the people of the same nationality have their customs, their religion, generally their language — that most intimate bond — and always the familiar outward scenes of earth and water, hill and plain and sky breathing with memories. Nationality en- ters into the soul of each man or woman who pos- sesses it. Mr. Chesterton at a recent conference well de- scribed it as a sacrament. It is a silent oath, an invisible mark. Life receives from it a particular color. It is felt as an influence in action and in emotion, almost in every thought. In freedom it sustains conduct with a proud assurance of community and reputation. Under oppression, it may fuse all the pleasant uses of existence into one consuming channel of fanatical devotion. It has inspired the noblest literature and all the finest forms of art. Chiefly in countries where the flame of nationality burned strong and clear has the human mind achieved its greatest miracles of beauty, thought and invention. Nationality possesses that daemonic and incalculable quality from which almost anything may be expected in the way of marvel, just as certain spiky plants UNDER THE YOKE 255 that have not varied winter or summer for years in their habitual unattractiveness will suddenly shoot up a ten-foot spire of radiant blossom abounding in honey. Chiefly by na- tionality has the human race been preserved from the dreari- ness of ant-like uniformity and has retained the power of variation which appears to be essential for the highest de- velopment of life. With what pleasure, during our travels, we discover the evidences of nationality even in such things as dress, ornaments, food, songs and dancing; still more in thought, speech, proverbs, literature, music and the higher arts! With what regret we see those characteristics swept away by the advancing tide of dominant monotony and Imperial dullness ! The loss may seem trivial compared with the loss of personal or political freedom, but it is not trivial. It is a symptom of spiritual ruin. How deep a degradation of intellect and personality is shown by the introduction of English music-hall songs among a highly poetic people like the Irish, or by the vulgar corruption of India 's superb man- ufactures and forms of art under the blight of British com- merce! You know the Persian carpets, of what magical beauty they are in design and color. When I was on the borders of Persia four years ago the Persian carpet mer- chants were selling one kind of carpet with a huge red lion being shot by a sportsman in the middle of it to please the English, and another kind decorated with a Parisian lady in a motor to please the Russians. From those carpets one may realize what the English Government's acquiescence in the subjection of Persia really involves. No subject race can entirely escape this degradation. No matter how good the government may be or how protective, all forms of subjection involve a certain loss of manhood. Under an alien Power the nature of the subject nationality becomes soft and dependent. Instead of working out its own salvation, it looks to the government for direction or assistance in every difficulty. Atrophy destroys its power of action. It loses the political sense and grows incapable of self-help or self-reliance. The stronger faculties, if not ex- tinguished, become mutilated. In Ireland, even to-day, we see the result of domination in the continued belief that the British Government which has brought the country to ruin possesses the sole power of restoring it to prosperity. In India we see a people so enervated by alien and paternal government that they have hardly the courage or energy to 256 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW take up such small responsibilities in local government as may be granted them. This is what a true Liberal states- man, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, meant by his wise saying that self-government is better than good government. And it might be further illustrated by the present condition of the largest subject race in the world — the race of women — to whom all the protective legislation and boasted chivalry and lap-dog petting, fondly supposed to be lavished upon them by men, are not to be compared in personal value with just the small right to a voice in the management of their own and national affairs. Such mutilation of character is the penalty of subjection at its best. At its worst the subject race pays the penalty in tormenting rancor, undying hatred, and the savage in- dignation that tears the heart. It may be said that indigna- tion is at all events better than loss of manhood, and I en- tirely agree. Where there is despotism it may well be that for this reason a cruel despotism is less harmful than a paternal despotism — less harmful, I mean, to the individual soul, which is the only thing that counts. But the soul that is choked by hatred and torn by indignation is not at its best. Its functions go wrong, its sight is distorted, its judgment perturbed, its sweetness poisoned, its laughter killed. The whole being suffers and is changed. For a time it may blaze with a fierce, a magnificent intensity. But we talk of a " consuming rage," and the phrase is profoundly true. Rage is a consuming fire, always a glorious fire, a wild beacon in the night of darkness, but it consumes to ashes the nature that is its fuel. Loss of manhood or perpetual rancor — those are the pen- alties imposed on the soul of a subject race. Nor does the dominant race escape scot free. Far from it. On the whole, it suffers a deeper degradation. A dominant race, like a domineering person, is always disagreeable and always a bore, and the nearer it is to the scene of domination the more disagreeable and wearisome it becomes, just as a tyran- nical man is worst at home. I have known English people start as quiet, pleasing, modest and amiable passengers in a P. & O. from Marseilles, but become less endurable every twenty-four hours of the fortnight to Bombay. There are noble and conspicuous exceptions alike in the army, the Indian Civil Service, and among the officers scattered over the Empire. But, as a rule, we may say that the worst char- UNDER THE YOKE 257 acteristics not only of our own but of all dominant races, such as the French, Germans and Russians, are displayed among their subject peoples. If, indeed, the subjects are on a level with spaniels that can be beaten or patted alternately and retain an equal affection and respect, the English son of squires thoroughly enjoys his position and does the beat- ing and patting well. But it is always with a certain loss of humor and common humanity; it brings a kind of stiff- ness and pedantry such as Charles Lamb complained of in the old-fashioned type of schoolmaster. It exaggerates a sense of Heaven-born superiority which, Heaven knows ! the English squire has no need to exaggerate. I am not one of those who set out to ' ' crab ' ' my country- men. We have lately had so much criticism and contempt poured upon us by more intelligent people like the Irish, the Germans and the ex-President of the United States that sometimes I have been driven to wonder whether we may not somewhere possess some element worthy of respect. But, keeping the lash in our own discriminating hands, we should probably all admit that in regard to other people's feelings and ideas we are rather insensitive as a nation. This form of unimaginative obtuseness undoubtedly increased during the extension of our grip upon subject races between the overthrow of Gladstone's first Home Rule Bill and the end of the Boer war. Perhaps those fifteen years were the most entirely vulgar period of our history, and vulgarity springs from an insensitive condition of mind. It will be a terrible recompense if the price of our world-wide Empire is an Imperial vulgarity upon which the sun never sets. There is another danger, not so subtle and pervading, but more likely to escape the notice of people who are not them- selves acquainted with the frontiers of Empire. It is the production and encouragement of a set of scoundrels and wasters who trade upon our country's prestige to rob, harry and even enslave the members of a subject race while they pose as the pioneers of Empire and are held up by senti- mental travelers, like Mr. Roosevelt, as examples of tough- ness and courage to the victims of monotonous toil who live at home at ease. There is no call either for Mr. Roosevelt's pity or admiration. I have known those wasters well and have studied all their tricks for turning a dirty half-crown. They enjoy more pleasure and greater ease in a day than any London shop assistant or bank clerk in a month. They vol. cxciv. — no. 669 17 258 THE NOETH AMERICAN EEVIEW take up the white man's burden and find it light, because it is the black man who carries it. Of all the impostors that nestle under our flag, I have found none more contented with their lot or more harmful to our national repute than the " toughs " who devour our subject races and stand in photo- graphic attitudes for Mr. Kipling to slobber over. These scoundrels and wasters are a far worse evil than most people think, for they erect a false ideal which easily corrupts youth with its attraction, and they furnish ready instru- ments for land-grabbers and company directors, as is too often seen in their onslaughts upon Zulus, Basutos and other half-savage peoples whom they desire to exterminate or enslave. They are a singularly poisonous by-product of Empire, all the more poisonous for their brag; and though they belong to the class whom their relations gladly con- tribute to emigrate, they are far worse employed in debauch- ing and plundering our so-called fellow-subjects in Africa than they would be in the brothels, gambling-dens, pigeon- shooting inclosures, workhouses, and jails of their native land. Of course, it is very useful to have dumping-grounds for our wasters, and it is pleasant to reflect upon the seven thousand miles of sea between one's self and one's worthless nephew, but a dumping-ground for nepotism can scarcely be considered the noblest object of conquest. Why is it, then, that one nation desires to subjugate anoth- er at all? Sometimes the object has simply been space — the pressure of population upon the extent of ground. Pastoral and nomad hordes, like the ' ' Barbarians ' ' and Tartars, have had that object, but, as a rule, it has ended in their own ab- sorption. The motives of the Eoman Empire were strangely mixed. Plunder certainly came in; trade came in; in later times the slave-trade and the supply of corn to Eome were great incentives. The personal advantage and ambition of prominent statesmen like Sulla or Caesar were the true aim of many conquests. The extension of religion had nothing at all to do with it, for the Eomans had the decency to keep their gods to themselves and never slaughtered in the name of Jove. But they were compelled to Empire by a peculiar conviction of destiny. They did not destroy or subdue other peoples so much for glory as from a sense of duty. It was their Heaven-sent mission to rule. Their poet advised other nations to occupy themselves with wisdom, learning, statu- ary, the arts, or what they pleased; it was the Eoman 's task UNDER THE YOKE 259 to hold the world in sway. To the Roman the object of Em- pire was Empire. It seemed to him the natural thing to con- quer every other nation, making the world one Rome. That was, in fact, his true religion, and we can but congratulate him on the unshaken faith of his self-esteem. The Turk, on the other hand, who was the next Imperial race, boasted no city and no self-conscious superiority of laws or race. He subdued the nations only in the name of God, and to all who accepted God he nobly extended the vision of Paradise and a complete equality of earthly squalor. The motives of medie- val and more recent conquests were the strangest of all. They were usually dynastic. They depended on the family claim of some family man to a title implying actual possession of another country and all its population. There was always one claimant against another claimant, this heir against that heir, as though the destinies of nationality could be settled by a line of parchment or a love-affair with a princess. Peo- ple grew so accustomed to this folly that even now we hardly realize its absurdity. Yet I suppose if the King of Spain left his kingdom by will to his well-beloved cousin George of England, not an English wherry would stir to take posses- sion, and our newspapers would merely remark that there was always a strain of insanity in the Spanish branch of the Bourbons. Two hundred years ago such a will would have produced a prolonged and devastating war. Something is gained. We have eliminated royal families from the motives of conquest. In the extension and maintenance of our own Empire all previous motives have been combined. "We have pleaded want of space; we have sought slaves either for export or for local labor; we have sought plunder and also trade or ' ' markets " ; we have sought dumping - grounds for our wasters and careers for our public school-boys ; like the Turks and Spaniards, we have sought to promote the knowledge of our God by the slaughter and enslavement of his creat- ures ; like the Romans, we have thought it our manifest duty to paint the world red and rule it. But within the last sixty or seventy years we have added the further motive most aptly expressed by the late King Leopold of Belgium in the document by which he obtained his rights over the Congo: I mean ' ' the moral and material amelioration ' ' of the sub- ject peoples. That was a motive unknown to the ancients, though the Romans came near it when they granted equal 260 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW citizenship to all provincials — a measure far in advance of any concession of ours. And it was unknown to the Middle Ages, though Turks and Spaniards came near it when they destroyed the infidels for their good and opened heaven to converted slaves and corpses. To subjugate a nationality for its own moral and material advantage is something new in history. It sounds the true hypocritical note. That is not a pleasant note, but it is a sign of change, an evidence of hope. In the Boer War our real objects were to paint the country red on the maps and to exploit the gold-mines. But some people said we were fighting for equal rights; some said it was to insure good treatment for the natives; some thought we were Christianizing the Boers ; one man told me " the Boers wanted washing." All those excuses were false and hypocritical. But they were tributes to virtue. They were a recognition that the old motives of Empire no longer sufficed. They exposed the hypocrites themselves to the retort of serious and innocent people : — ' ' Very well, then. If these were your motives, give equal rights, protect the natives, Christianize the Boers, wash them if you can." It is a retort against which hypocrisy cannot long stand out. It proves that a new standard of judgment is slowly form- ing in the world. But for this new standard, where would be the Congo agitation, or the movement against the Portu- guese cocoa slavery or such sympathy as exists with the Nationalists of India? When the doctrines of equal rights or even of moral and material amelioration are assumed by hypocrisy, honesty will at last raise her protest and hypo- crites be no longer allowed to reap the harvest of a quiet lie. It is an advance. As history counts time it is a rapid ad- vance. Now that Russia is reducing Finland to a state of entire subjection without even a pretext of right or the shadow of a pretense at improved civilization, a general feel- ing of shame and loss pervades Europe. The governments do not move, but here and there the peoples raise a protest. Not even the most thorough-going champions of Imperial- ism, such as the Tim.es, ventured to defend the action. They contented themselves with Cain's excuse that the murder was no affair of ours. A century and a half ago they would not have needed an excuse. No protest would have been raised. It did not matter what nationality was enslaved. There is an advance ; we have now to extend it. In regard to races already subject, we have but to act up to the plead- UNDER THE YOKE 261 ings of our own hypocrisy ; we have to maintain among them equal justice, equal rights and equal consideration as mem- bers of one great community, instead of depriving them of their manhood and kicking them out of their own railway carriages. We have to train them on the way to self-govern- ment, instead of clapping them into prison if they mention the subject. And in regard to nationalities that still retain their free- dom, we must bring our governments up into line with the leading thought of the day. We must show them that the destruction of a free people like Finland or Persia is not a local or distant disaster only, but affects the whole com- munity of nations and spreads like a poison, blighting the growth of freedom in every land and encouraging all the black forces of tyranny, darkness and suppression. Rapidly growing among us, there is already a certain solidarity of all free States, and the problem of the immediate future is how to make their common action effective on the side of liberty. When I saw Tolstoy during the Russian revolution of 1905 he said to me : " The present movement in Russia is not a riot ; it is not even a revolu- tion; it is the end of an age. The age that is ending is the age of Empires — the collection of smaller States under one large State. There is no true community of heart or thought between Kussia, Finland, Poland, the Caucasus and all our other States and races. And what has Hungary, Bohemia, Syria or the Tyrol to do with Austria? No more than Canada, Australia, India or Ireland has to do with England. People are now beginning to see the absurdity of these things, and in the end people are reasonable. That is why the age of Empires is passing away." It was a bold prophecy, but it contains the root of the whole matter. Only where there is community of heart and thought is national or personal life possible in any worthy sense. Unless that community exists between the various nationalities within an Empire, we may be sure the Empire is moribund. It is dying, as Napoleon said, of indigestion, and that other community of the world which is slowly taking shape among free and reasonable peoples will demand its dissolution. Our hope is that the other community will further go on to demand that these disastrous experiments in the overthrow and subjection of free nationalities shall no longer be tolerated by the combined forces of freedom. Heney W. Nevinson.